Fish pond preparation is the basic and first step in freshwater fish farming. Pond preparation is to be done intensively to enhance the fish production of the pond. Without proper preparation of the pond bottom if we start the fish culture technique it will create a huge problem and production will be of poor quality. In the case of the pond preparation process, good management practices are the basic solution for obtaining better fish yield. Sustainable methods should always be chosen to make pond preparation more suitable for environment-friendly fish farming technique.
Importance of pond preparation in fish farming
The most important component of the fish farming business is to prepare a pond in a proper way. Without the construction of a well-prepared pond, it is not possible to start or run any fish farming business. The importance of pond preparation is given below.
- Aquatic plants and animals which are harmful to fish are controlled
- Cannibalistic and unwanted fishes are removed
- A healthy environment of the pond is preserved
- Optimum pH for fish production is maintained
- Availability of the feed for the cultured fish is ensured
Types of ponds used in fish farming
Within freshwater fish culture unit, different kinds of pond components are used; they are nursery, rearing, production, segregation and breeding/spawning pool.
The percentage of area covered by these different pond types are given below:
Nursery pond: 3%
Rearing pond: 11%
Production pond: 60%
Segregation pond: 1%
Breeding pond: 25
Nature of different ponds
Nursery ponds: Shallow
Rearing ponds: Moderately deep
Production ponds: Moderately deep
Segregation pond: Moderately deep
Breeding ponds: Moderately deep
Water level (for larger production ponds): 2-3 meters